Antitumorigenic Effects of Cannabinoids beyond Apoptosis
  1. Nadine Freimuth,
  2. Robert Ramer and
  3. Burkhard Hinz

+ Author Affiliations


  1. Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
  1. Address correspondence to:
    Dr. Burkhard Hinz,

    Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Rostock, Schillingallee 70, 18057 Rostock, Germany.

    E-mail: burkhard.hinz@med.uni-rostock.de

Abstract

According to the World Health Organization, the cases of death caused by cancer will have been doubled until the year 2030. By 2010, cancer is expected to be the number one cause of death. Therefore, it is necessary to explore novel approaches for the treatment of cancer. Over past years, the antitumorigenic effects of cannabinoids have emerged as an exciting field in cancer research. Apart from their proapoptotic and antiproliferative action, recent research has shown that cannabinoids may likewise affect tumor cell angiogenesis, migration, invasion, adhesion, and metastasization. This review will summarize the data concerning the influence of cannabinoids on these locomotive processes beyond modulation of cancer cell apoptosis and proliferation. The findings discussed here provide a new perspective on the antitumorigenic potential of cannabinoids.

Footnotes

  • Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at http://jpet.aspetjournals.org.

    doi:10.1124/jpet.109.157735

  • ABBREVIATIONS:

    Akt
    protein kinase B
    AEA
    anandamide
    Ang-1/2
    angiopoietin 1/2
    2-AG
    2-arachidonylglycerol
    CBD
    cannabidiol
    CB1
    cannabinoid receptor 1
    CB2
    cannabinoid receptor 2
    ECM
    extracellular matrix
    EGF
    epidermal growth factor
    EGFR
    epidermal growth factor receptor
    DEA
    docosatetraenylethanolamide
    ERK 1/2
    extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2
    FAK
    focal adhesion kinase
    FRNK
    FAK-related nonkinase
    HIF-1α
    hypoxia-inducible factor 1α
    HUVEC
    human umbilical vascular endothelial cells
    Id-1/3
    inhibitor of differentiation 1/3
    IgSF CAMs
    cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily
    IL-1
    interleukin-1
    MMP
    matrix metalloproteinase
    MMP-2/9
    matrix metalloproteinase 2/9
    MA
    methanandamide
    Met-F-AEA
    met-fluoro-anandamide
    NSCLC
    non–small cell lung cancer
    PlGF
    placental growth factor
    RHOA
    Ras homolog gene family member A
    RHOA-ROCK
    RhoA/Rho-associated coiled coil-containing kinase
    ROS
    reactive oxygen species
    Src
    proto-oncogenic tyrosine kinase
    THC
    Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol
    Tie-1
    tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 1
    TIMP-1
    tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1
    TRPV1
    transient receptor potential vanilloid 1
    VEGF
    vascular endothelial growth factor
    VEGFR
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor.
    • Received July 15, 2009.
    • Accepted November 2, 2009.
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